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Do these forms of energy have anything in common?

# Chapter 12. Simplifying the energy zoo

Variety is the spice of life, not of science. The figure shows a few examples from the bewildering array of forms of energy that surrounds us. The physicist's psyche rebels against the prospect of a long laundry list of types of energy, each of which would require its own equations, concepts, notation, and terminology. The point at which we've arrived in the study of energy is analogous to the period in the 1960's when a half a dozen new subatomic particles were being discovered every year in particle accelerators. It was an embarrassment. Physicists began to speak of the “particle zoo,” and it seemed that the subatomic world was distressingly complex. The particle zoo was simplified by the realization that most of the new particles being whipped up were simply clusters of a previously unsuspected set of more fundamental particles (which were whimsically dubbed quarks, a made-up word from a line of poetry by James Joyce, “Three quarks for Master Mark.”) The energy zoo can also be simplified, and it is the purpose of this chapter to demonstrate the hidden similarities between forms of energy as seemingly different as heat and motion.

a / A vivid demonstration that heat is a form of motion. A small amount of boiling water is poured into the empty can, which rapidly fills up with hot steam. The can is then sealed tightly, and soon crumples. This can be explained as follows. The high temperature of the steam is interpreted as a high average speed of random motions of its molecules. Before the lid was put on the can, the rapidly moving steam molecules pushed their way out of the can, forcing the slower air molecules out of the way. As the steam inside the can thinned out, a stable situation was soon achieved, in which the force from the less dense steam molecules moving at high speed balanced against the force from the more dense but slower air molecules outside. The cap was put on, and after a while the steam inside the can reached the same temperature as the air outside. The force from the cool, thin steam no longer matched the force from the cool, dense air outside, and the imbalance of forces crushed the can.

## 12.1 Heat is kinetic energy

b / Random motion of atoms in a gas, a liquid, and a solid.

What is heat really? Is it an invisible fluid that your bare feet soak up from a hot sidewalk? Can one ever remove all the heat from an object? Is there a maximum to the temperature scale?

The theory of heat as a fluid seemed to explain why colder objects absorbed heat from hotter ones, but once it became clear that heat was a form of energy, it began to seem unlikely that a material substance could transform itself into and out of all those other forms of energy like motion or light. For instance, a compost pile gets hot, and we describe this as a case where, through the action of bacteria, chemical energy stored in the plant cuttings is transformed into heat energy. The heating occurs even if there is no nearby warmer object that could have been leaking “heat fluid” into the pile.

An alternative interpretation of heat was suggested by the theory that matter is made of atoms. Since gases are thousands of times less dense than solids or liquids, the atoms (or clusters of atoms called molecules) in a gas must be far apart. In that case, what is keeping all the air molecules from settling into a thin film on the floor of the room in which you are reading this book? The simplest explanation is that they are moving very rapidly, continually ricocheting off of the floor, walls, and ceiling. Though bizarre, the cloud-of-bullets image of a gas did give a natural explanation for the surprising ability of something as tenuous as a gas to exert huge forces. Your car's tires can hold it up because you have pumped extra molecules into them. The inside of the tire gets hit by molecules more often than the outside, forcing it to stretch and stiffen.

The outward forces of the air in your car's tires increase even further when you drive on the freeway for a while, heating up the rubber and the air inside. This type of observation leads naturally to the conclusion that hotter matter differs from colder in that its atoms' random motion is more rapid. In a liquid, the motion could be visualized as people in a milling crowd shoving past each other more quickly. In a solid, where the atoms are packed together, the motion is a random vibration of each atom as it knocks against its neighbors.

We thus achieve a great simplification in the theory of heat. Heat is simply a form of kinetic energy, the total kinetic energy of random motion of all the atoms in an object. With this new understanding, it becomes possible to answer at one stroke the questions posed at the beginning of the section. Yes, it is at least theoretically possible to remove all the heat from an object. The coldest possible temperature, known as absolute zero, is that at which all the atoms have zero velocity, so that their kinetic energies, $$(1/2)mv^2$$, are all zero. No, there is no maximum amount of heat that a certain quantity of matter can have, and no maximum to the temperature scale, since arbitrarily large values of $$v$$ can create arbitrarily large amounts of kinetic energy per atom.

The kinetic theory of heat also provides a simple explanation of the true nature of temperature. Temperature is a measure of the amount of energy per molecule, whereas heat is the total amount of energy possessed by all the molecules in an object.

There is an entire branch of physics, called thermodynamics, that deals with heat and temperature and forms the basis for technologies such as refrigeration. Thermodynamics is discussed in more detail in optional chapter 16, and I have provided here only a brief overview of the thermodynamic concepts that relate directly to energy, glossing over at least one point that would be dealt with more carefully in a thermodynamics course: it is really only true for a gas that all the heat is in the form of kinetic energy. In solids and liquids, the atoms are close enough to each other to exert intense electrical forces on each other, and there is therefore another type of energy involved, the energy associated with the atoms' distances from each other. Strictly speaking, heat energy is defined not as energy associated with random motion of molecules but as any form of energy that can be conducted between objects in contact, without any force.

## 12.2 Potential energy: energy of distance or closeness

c / The skater has converted all his kinetic energy into potential energy on the way up the side of the pool.

d / As the skater free-falls, his PE is converted into KE. (The numbers would be equally valid as a description of his motion on the way up.)

We have already seen many examples of energy related to the distance between interacting objects. When two objects participate in an attractive noncontact force, energy is required to bring them farther apart. In both of the perpetual motion machines that started off the previous chapter, one of the types of energy involved was the energy associated with the distance between the balls and the earth, which attract each other gravitationally. In the perpetual motion machine with the magnet on the pedestal, there was also energy associated with the distance between the magnet and the iron ball, which were attracting each other.

The opposite happens with repulsive forces: two socks with the same type of static electric charge will repel each other, and cannot be pushed closer together without supplying energy.

In general, the term potential energy, with algebra symbol PE, is used for the energy associated with the distance between two objects that attract or repel each other via a force that depends on the distance between them. Forces that are not determined by distance do not have potential energy associated with them. For instance, the normal force acts only between objects that have zero distance between them, and depends on other factors besides the fact that the distance is zero. There is no potential energy associated with the normal force.

The following are some commonplace examples of potential energy:

• gravitational potential energy: The skateboarder in the photo has risen from the bottom of the pool, converting kinetic energy into gravitational potential energy. After being at rest for an instant, he will go back down, converting PE back into KE.
• magnetic potential energy: When a magnetic compass needle is allowed to rotate, the poles of the compass change their distances from the earth's north and south magnetic poles, converting magnetic potential energy into kinetic energy. (Eventually the kinetic energy is all changed into heat by friction, and the needle settles down in the position that minimizes its potential energy.)
• electrical potential energy: Socks coming out of the dryer cling together because of attractive electrical forces. Energy is required in order to separate them.
• potential energy of bending or stretching: The force between the two ends of a spring depends on the distance between them, i.e., on the length of the spring. If a car is pressed down on its shock absorbers and then released, the potential energy stored in the spring is transformed into kinetic and gravitational potential energy as the car bounces back up.

I have deliberately avoided introducing the term potential energy up until this point, because it tends to produce unfortunate connotations in the minds of students who have not yet been inoculated with a careful description of the construction of a numerical energy scale. Specifically, there is a tendency to generalize the term inappropriately to apply to any situation where there is the “potential” for something to happen: “I took a break from digging, but I had potential energy because I knew I'd be ready to work hard again in a few minutes.”

### An equation for gravitational potential energy

All the vital points about potential energy can be made by focusing on the example of gravitational potential energy. For simplicity, we treat only vertical motion, and motion close to the surface of the earth, where the gravitational force is nearly constant. (The generalization to the three dimensions and varying forces is more easily accomplished using the concept of work, which is the subject of the next chapter.)

\begin{numberedequations} To find an equation for gravitational PE, we examine the case of free fall, in which energy is transformed between kinetic energy and gravitational PE. Whatever energy is lost in one form is gained in an equal amount in the other form, so using the notation $$\Delta KE$$ to stand for $$KE_f-KE_i$$ and a similar notation for PE, we have

$\begin{equation*} \Delta KE = -\Delta PE_{grav} . \end{equation*}$

It will be convenient to refer to the object as falling, so that PE is being changed into KE, but the math applies equally well to an object slowing down on its way up. We know an equation for kinetic energy,

$\begin{equation*} KE=\frac{1}{2}mv^2 , \end{equation*}$

so if we can relate $$v$$ to height, $$y$$, we will be able to relate $$\Delta PE$$ to $$y$$, which would tell us what we want to know about potential energy. The $$y$$ component of the velocity can be connected to the height via the constant acceleration equation

$\begin{equation*} v_f^2 = v_i^2 + 2 a \Delta y , \end{equation*}$

and Newton's second law provides the acceleration,

$\begin{equation*} a = F/m , \end{equation*}$

in terms of the gravitational force. \end{numberedequations}

The algebra is simple because both equation [2] and equation [3] have velocity to the second power. Equation [2] can be solved for $$v^2$$ to give $$v^2 = 2KE/m$$, and substituting this into equation [3], we find

$\begin{equation*} 2\frac{KE_f}{m} = 2\frac{KE_i}{m} + 2a\Delta y . \end{equation*}$

Making use of equations [1] and [4] gives the simple result

$\begin{multline*} \Delta PE_{grav} = -F\Delta y . \shoveright{\text{[change in gravitational PE}}\\ \shoveright{\text{resulting from a change in height \Delta y;}}\\ \shoveright{\text{F is the gravitational force on the object,}}\\ \shoveright{\text{i.e., its weight; valid only near the surface}}\\ \shoveright{\text{of the earth, where F is constant]}}\\ \end{multline*}$

##### Example 1: Dropping a rock

$$\triangleright$$ If you drop a 1-kg rock from a height of 1 m, how many joules of KE does it have on impact with the ground? (Assume that any energy transformed into heat by air friction is negligible.)

$$\triangleright$$ If we choose the $$y$$ axis to point up, then $$F_y$$ is negative, and equals $$-(1\ \text{kg})(g)=-9.8\ \text{N}$$. A decrease in $$y$$ is represented by a negative value of $$\Delta y$$, $$\Delta y=-1\ \text{m}$$, so the change in potential energy is $$-(-9.8\ \text{N})(-1\ \text{m})\approx-10\ \text{J}$$. (The proof that newtons multiplied by meters give units of joules is left as a homework problem.) Conservation of energy says that the loss of this amount of PE must be accompanied by a corresponding increase in KE of 10 J.

It may be dismaying to note how many minus signs had to be handled correctly even in this relatively simple example: a total of four. Rather than depending on yourself to avoid any mistakes with signs, it is better to check whether the final result make sense physically. If it doesn't, just reverse the sign.

Although the equation for gravitational potential energy was derived by imagining a situation where it was transformed into kinetic energy, the equation can be used in any context, because all the types of energy are freely convertible into each other.

##### Example 2: Gravitational PE converted directly into heat

$$\triangleright$$ A 50-kg firefighter slides down a 5-m pole at constant velocity. How much heat is produced?

$$\triangleright$$ Since she slides down at constant velocity, there is no change in KE. Heat and gravitational PE are the only forms of energy that change. Ignoring plus and minus signs, the gravitational force on her body equals $$mg$$, and the amount of energy transformed is

$\begin{equation*} (mg)(5\ \text{m}) = 2500\ \text{J} . \end{equation*}$

On physical grounds, we know that there must have been an increase (positive change) in the heat energy in her hands and in the flagpole.

Here are some questions and answers about the interpretation of the equation $$\Delta PE_{grav} =-F\Delta y$$ for gravitational potential energy.

{}Answer:\ }

\qandaquestion In a nutshell, why is there a minus sign in the equation? \qandaanswer It is because we increase the PE by moving the object in the opposite direction compared to the gravitational force.

\qandaquestion Why do we only get an equation for the change in potential energy? Don't I really want an equation for the potential energy itself? \qandaanswer No, you really don't. This relates to a basic fact about potential energy, which is that it is not a well defined quantity in the absolute sense. Only changes in potential energy are unambiguously defined. If you and I both observe a rock falling, and agree that it deposits 10 J of energy in the dirt when it hits, then we will be forced to agree that the 10 J of KE must have come from a loss of 10 joules of PE. But I might claim that it started with 37 J of PE and ended with 27, while you might swear just as truthfully that it had 109 J initially and 99 at the end. It is possible to pick some specific height as a reference level and say that the PE is zero there, but it's easier and safer just to work with changes in PE and avoid absolute PE altogether.

\qandaquestion You referred to potential energy as the energy that two objects have because of their distance from each other. If a rock falls, the object is the rock. Where's the other object? \qandaanswer Newton's third law guarantees that there will always be two objects. The other object is the planet earth.

\qandaquestion If the other object is the earth, are we talking about the distance from the rock to the center of the earth or the distance from the rock to the surface of the earth? \qandaanswer It doesn't matter. All that matters is the change in distance, $$\Delta y$$, not $$y$$. Measuring from the earth's center or its surface are just two equally valid choices of a reference point for defining absolute PE.

\qandaquestion Which object contains the PE, the rock or the earth? \qandaanswer We may refer casually to the PE of the rock, but technically the PE is a relationship between the earth and the rock, and we should refer to the earth and the rock together as possessing the PE.

\qandaquestion How would this be any different for a force other than gravity? \qandaanswer It wouldn't. The result was derived under the assumption of constant force, but the result would be valid for any other situation where two objects interacted through a constant force. Gravity is unusual, however, in that the gravitational force on an object is so nearly constant under ordinary conditions. The magnetic force between a magnet and a refrigerator, on the other hand, changes drastically with distance. The math is a little more complex for a varying force, but the concepts are the same.

\qandaquestion Suppose a pencil is balanced on its tip and then falls over. The pencil is simultaneously changing its height and rotating, so the height change is different for different parts of the object. The bottom of the pencil doesn't lose any height at all. What do you do in this situation? \qandaanswer The general philosophy of energy is that an object's energy is found by adding up the energy of every little part of it. You could thus add up the changes in potential energy of all the little parts of the pencil to find the total change in potential energy. Luckily there's an easier way! The derivation of the equation for gravitational potential energy used Newton's second law, which deals with the acceleration of the object's center of mass (i.e., its balance point). If you just define $$\Delta y$$ as the height change of the center of mass, everything works out. A huge Ferris wheel can be rotated without putting in or taking out any PE, because its center of mass is staying at the same height.

self-check:

A ball thrown straight up will have the same speed on impact with the ground as a ball thrown straight down at the same speed. How can this be explained using potential energy?

(answer in the back of the PDF version of the book)
##### Discussion Question

You throw a steel ball up in the air. How can you prove based on conservation of energy that it has the same speed when it falls back into your hand? What if you throw a feather up --- is energy not conserved in this case?

## 12.3 All energy is potential or kinetic

e / All these energy transformations turn out at the atomic level to be changes in potential energy resulting from changes in the distances between atoms.

f / This figure looks similar to the previous ones, but the scale is a million times smaller. The little balls are the neutrons and protons that make up the tiny nucleus at the center of the uranium atom. When the nucleus splits (fissions), the potential energy change is partly electrical and partly a change in the potential energy derived from the force that holds atomic nuclei together (known as the strong nuclear force).

g / A pellet of plutonium-238 glows with its own heat. Its nuclear potential energy is being converted into heat, a form of kinetic energy. Pellets of this type are used as power supplies on some space probes.

In the same way that we found that a change in temperature is really only a change in kinetic energy at the atomic level, we now find that every other form of energy turns out to be a form of potential energy. Boiling, for instance, means knocking some of the atoms (or molecules) out of the liquid and into the space above, where they constitute a gas. There is a net attractive force between essentially any two atoms that are next to each other, which is why matter always prefers to be packed tightly in the solid or liquid state unless we supply enough potential energy to pull it apart into a gas. This explains why water stops getting hotter when it reaches the boiling point: the power being pumped into the water by your stove begins going into potential energy rather than kinetic energy.

As shown in figure e, every stored form of energy that we encounter in everyday life turns out to be a form of potential energy at the atomic level. The forces between atoms are electrical and magnetic in nature, so these are actually electrical and magnetic potential energies.

Although light is a topic of the second half of this course, it is useful to have a preview of how it fits in here. Light is a wave composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, so we can include it under the category of electrical and magnetic potential energy.

Even if we wish to include nuclear reactions in the picture, there still turn out to be only four fundamental types of energy:

kinetic energy (including heat)

gravitational potential energy

electrical and magnetic potential energy

nuclear potential energy

##### Discussion Question

Referring back to the pictures at the beginning of the chapter, how do all these forms of energy fit into the shortened list of categories given above?

## Vocabulary

potential energy — the energy having to do with the distance between two objects that interact via a noncontact force

## Notation

PE — potential energy

## Other Notation

$$U$$ or $$V$$ — symbols used for potential energy in the scientific literature and in most advanced textbooks

## Summary

{}

Historically, the energy concept was only invented to include a few phenomena, but it was later generalized more and more to apply to new situations, for example nuclear reactions. This generalizing process resulted in an undesirably long list of types of energy, each of which apparently behaved according to its own rules.

The first step in simplifying the picture came with the realization that heat was a form of random motion on the atomic level, i.e., heat was nothing more than the kinetic energy of atoms.

A second and even greater simplification was achieved with the realization that all the other apparently mysterious forms of energy actually had to do with changing the distances between atoms (or similar processes in nuclei). This type of energy, which relates to the distance between objects that interact via a force, is therefore of great importance. We call it potential energy.

Most of the important ideas about potential energy can be understood by studying the example of gravitational potential energy. The change in an object's gravitational potential energy is given by

$\begin{multline*} \Delta PE_{grav} = -F_{grav} \Delta y , \shoveright{\text{[if F_{grav} is constant, i.e., the}}\\ \shoveright{\text{the motion is all near the Earth's surface]}}\\ \end{multline*}$

The most important thing to understand about potential energy is that there is no unambiguous way to define it in an absolute sense. The only thing that everyone can agree on is how much the potential energy has changed from one moment in time to some later moment in time.

## Homework Problems

h / Problem 7.

i / Problem 17.

1. Can gravitational potential energy ever be negative? Note that the question refers to $$PE$$, not $$\Delta PE$$, so that you must think about how the choice of a reference level comes into play. [Based on a problem by Serway and Faughn.]

2. A ball rolls up a ramp, turns around, and comes back down. When does it have the greatest gravitational potential energy? The greatest kinetic energy? [Based on a problem by Serway and Faughn.]

3. (a) You release a magnet on a tabletop near a big piece of iron, and the magnet leaps across the table to the iron. Does the magnetic potential energy increase, or decrease? Explain. (b) Suppose instead that you have two repelling magnets. You give them an initial push towards each other, so they decelerate while approaching each other. Does the magnetic potential energy increase, or decrease? Explain.

4. Let $$E_b$$ be the energy required to boil one kg of water. (a) (answer check available at lightandmatter.com) Find an equation for the minimum height from which a bucket of water must be dropped if the energy released on impact is to vaporize it. Assume that all the heat goes into the water, not into the dirt it strikes, and ignore the relatively small amount of energy required to heat the water from room temperature to $$100°\text{C}$$. [Numerical check, not for credit: Plugging in $$E_b=2.3$$ MJ/kg should give a result of 230 km.]
(b) Show that the units of your answer in part a come out right based on the units given for $$E_b$$.

5. A grasshopper with a mass of 110 mg falls from rest from a height of 310 cm. On the way down, it dissipates 1.1 mJ of heat due to air resistance. At what speed, in m/s, does it hit the ground? (solution in the pdf version of the book)

6. A person on a bicycle is to coast down a ramp of height $$h$$ and then pass through a circular loop of radius $$r$$. What is the smallest value of $$h$$ for which the cyclist will complete the loop without falling? (Ignore the kinetic energy of the spinning wheels.)(answer check available at lightandmatter.com)

7. (solution in the pdf version of the book) A skateboarder starts at rest nearly at the top of a giant cylinder, and begins rolling down its side. (If he started exactly at rest and exactly at the top, he would never get going!) Show that his board loses contact with the pipe after he has dropped by a height equal to one third the radius of the pipe.

8. (a) A circular hoop of mass $$m$$ and radius $$r$$ spins like a wheel while its center remains at rest. Its period (time required for one revolution) is $$T$$. Show that its kinetic energy equals $$2\pi^2mr^2/T^2$$.
(b) If such a hoop rolls with its center moving at velocity $$v$$, its kinetic energy equals $$(1/2)mv^2$$, plus the amount of kinetic energy found in the first part of this problem. Show that a hoop rolls down an inclined plane with half the acceleration that a frictionless sliding block would have.

9. (solution in the pdf version of the book) Students are often tempted to think of potential energy and kinetic energy as if they were always related to each other, like yin and yang. To show this is incorrect, give examples of physical situations in which (a) PE is converted to another form of PE, and (b) KE is converted to another form of KE.

10. (answer check available at lightandmatter.com) Lord Kelvin, a physicist, told the story of how he encountered James Joule when Joule was on his honeymoon. As he traveled, Joule would stop with his wife at various waterfalls, and measure the difference in temperature between the top of the waterfall and the still water at the bottom. (a) It would surprise most people to learn that the temperature increased. Why should there be any such effect, and why would Joule care? How would this relate to the energy concept, of which he was the principal inventor? (b) How much of a gain in temperature should there be between the top and bottom of a 50-meter waterfall? (c) What assumptions did you have to make in order to calculate your answer to part b? In reality, would the temperature change be more than or less than what you calculated? [Based on a problem by Arnold Arons.]

11. Make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the power represented by the loss of gravitational energy of the water going over Niagara Falls. If the hydroelectric plant at the bottom of the falls could convert 100% of this to electrical power, roughly how many households could be powered? (solution in the pdf version of the book)

12. When you buy a helium-filled balloon, the seller has to inflate it from a large metal cylinder of the compressed gas. The helium inside the cylinder has energy, as can be demonstrated for example by releasing a little of it into the air: you hear a hissing sound, and that sound energy must have come from somewhere. The total amount of energy in the cylinder is very large, and if the valve is inadvertently damaged or broken off, the cylinder can behave like bomb or a rocket.

Suppose the company that puts the gas in the cylinders prepares cylinder A with half the normal amount of pure helium, and cylinder B with the normal amount. Cylinder B has twice as much energy, and yet the temperatures of both cylinders are the same. Explain, at the atomic level, what form of energy is involved, and why cylinder B has twice as much.

13. At a given temperature, the average kinetic energy per molecule is a fixed value, so for instance in air, the more massive oxygen molecules are moving more slowly on the average than the nitrogen molecules. The ratio of the masses of oxygen and nitrogen molecules is 16.00 to 14.01. Now suppose a vessel containing some air is surrounded by a vacuum, and the vessel has a tiny hole in it, which allows the air to slowly leak out. The molecules are bouncing around randomly, so a given molecule will have to “try” many times before it gets lucky enough to head out through the hole. Find the rate at which oxygen leaks divided by the rate at which nitrogen leaks. (Define this rate according to the fraction of the gas that leaks out in a given time, not the mass or number of molecules leaked per unit time.)(answer check available at lightandmatter.com)

14. Explain in terms of conservation of energy why sweating cools your body, even though the sweat is at the same temperature as your body. Describe the forms of energy involved in this energy transformation. Why don't you get the same cooling effect if you wipe the sweat off with a towel? Hint: The sweat is evaporating.

15. Anya and Ivan lean over a balcony side by side. Anya throws a penny downward with an initial speed of 5 m/s. Ivan throws a penny upward with the same speed. Both pennies end up on the ground below. Compare their kinetic energies and velocities on impact.

16. (a) A circular hoop of mass $$m$$ and radius $$r$$ spins like a wheel while its center remains at rest. Let $$\omega$$ (Greek letter omega) be the number of radians it covers per unit time, i.e., $$\omega=2\pi/T$$, where the period, $$T$$, is the time for one revolution. Show that its kinetic energy equals $$(1/2)m\omega^2r^2$$.
(b) Show that the answer to part a has the right units. (Note that radians aren't really units, since the definition of a radian is a unitless ratio of two lengths.)
(c) If such a hoop rolls with its center moving at velocity $$v$$, its kinetic energy equals $$(1/2)mv^2$$, plus the amount of kinetic energy found in part a. Show that a hoop rolls down an inclined plane with half the acceleration that a frictionless sliding block would have.

17. The figure shows two unequal masses, $$M$$ and $$m$$, connected by a string running over a pulley. This system was analyzed previously in problem 10 on p. 177, using Newton's laws.
(a) Analyze the system using conservation of energy instead. Find the speed the weights gain after being released from rest and traveling a distance $$h$$.(answer check available at lightandmatter.com)
(b) Use your result from part a to find the acceleration, reproducing the result of the earlier problem.(answer check available at lightandmatter.com)

(c) 1998-2013 Benjamin Crowell, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike license. Photo credits are given at the end of the Adobe Acrobat version.